Holden Crater | ESA Mars Express
Holden is a 140 km wide crater situated within the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle (MC-19) region of the planet Mars, located with the southern highlands. It is named after Edward Singleton Holden, an American astronomer, and the founder of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. It is part of the Uzboi-Landon-Morava (ULM) system.
Like Gusev, it is notable for an outlet channel, Uzboi Vallis, that runs into it, and for many features that seem to have been created by flowing water. It's believed that Holden Crater was formed by an impact during the Noachian or Hesperian periods.
The crater's rim is cut with gullies, and at the end of some gullies are fan-shaped deposits of material transported by water. The crater is of great interest to scientists because it has some of the best-exposed lake deposits. One of the layers has been found by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to contain clays. Clays only form in the presence of water. There are two unit of sediments in the crater. The lower unit formed in a large lake. It is believed the lake waters originated from the crater walls/or groundwater. Water from the crater walls may have come from precipitation when the Martian climate was different. The upper unit formed when water that was ponded to the south in Uzboi Vallis broke through Holden's rim. It is believed that great amount of water went through the rim; one flow was caused by a body of water larger than Earth's Lake Huron. Some of the evidence for such a large flow of water is the presence of boulders tens of meters in size sticking above the surface. To transport such huge rocks takes a great deal of water.
Credit: European Space Agency (ESA)
Processing: Sean Doran
Release Date: June 19, 2017 +European Space Agency, ESA
+DLR, German Aerospace Center
+Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)
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