"Capitalism is but the gentleman's form of slavery" - Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah, the first Prime Minister (1957-1960) and President (1960-1966) of the Republic of Ghana, was the leader of the first sub-Saharan African nation to gain its independence. He subsequently became a leading figure in the campaign for the United States of Africa. Nkrumah was born on September 21, 1909 in Nkroful, Gold Coast. The son of a goldsmith, he attended mission schools at Accra and government training colleges at Achimota (1926-1930) where he prepared to be a teacher.
In 1935, Nkrumah left for the United States where he attended Lincoln University (1935-1939) and the University of Pennsylvania (1939-1943). A gifted student, by 1943 Nkrumah had earned multiple bachelor’s and master’s degrees in economics, sociology, education, theology, and philosophy. Then, in May of 1945 Nkrumah departed for London, England, where he studied as a PhD student at the London School of Economics. While in London Nkrumah held key positions in anti-colonialist and black-nationalist organizations, and authored controversial papers calling for African independence and unity. In 1945 Nkrumah co-founded the Pan African Congress, which became an influential voice against colonialism in Africa.
In 1947 Nkrumah returned to the Gold Coast and became general secretary of the newly-founded United Gold Coast Convention. However, in 1949 Nkrumah split with the organization over its political objectives and formed the Convention People’s Party (CPP). During his tenure as head of the CPP, Nkrumah protested British rule and led numerous petitions for self government. Imprisoned by the British in 1950 for his political activities, Nkrumah was released in 1951 when his party won the general election in a landslide victory. He subsequently was elected Prime Minister in 1952.
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